Molecular-Dynamic Simulation of the Bombardment of a Lead Film on Graphene by Xe13 Clusters
The Physics of Metals and Metallography, 2016, Vol. 117, No. 3, pp. 246–253. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © A.E. Galashev, 2016, published in Fizika Metallov i Metallovedenie, 2016, Vol. 117, No. 3, pp. 258–265.
A. E. Galashev
Abstract—The purification of graphene from a lead film by irradiating the target with a beam of Xe13 clusters with an energy of 20 eV at different angles of incidence has been studied. Using the method of statistical geometry, it has been shown that, before the bombardment, the double-layer lead film adsorbed on graphene had an irregular structure. Graphene contained divacancies, the edges of which, as well as the edges of the graphene sheet, were hydrogenated. The complete removal of lead from graphene was achieved at the angle of incidence of Xe13 clusters equal to 45°. A major part of the film was separated from graphene in the form of an island, which, after separation, was transformed into a three-dimensional structure. The stresses present in the graphene sheet changed in the course of bombardment, but the stressed state retained after the bombardment was terminated. The type of the distribution of stresses in graphene indicates the absence of enhancement of the stressed state in the course of bombardment. The bombardment at angles of incidence of clusters less than 75° substantially enhances the roughness of graphene. The bombardments in the entire range of the angles of cluster incidence (0°–90°) have resulted in no significant damages in the hydrogenated edges of the graphene sheet.